District Profile

India has 2.45 per cent of the worlds land area and 17 per cent of population. He is the second most populous country in the world after China. About 72 per cent of its population live in villages and about 2/3 of its work force is engaged in agriculture and allied activities . According to an estimate, the burgeoning population of India is expected to exceed 1229 million by 2015, requiring nearly 275Mt of food grain, against current production of 209Mt of food grain. Per capita cultivated land area availability which was 0.53 ha in 1950 and 0.195 ha in 1990, is expected to decrease to 0.121 ha by 2025 and 0.087 ha by 2050 putting a major challenge to meet all basic needs of our Indian masses.

India’s major concerns are to rectify the food un-security, sluggish agricultural growth, fatigued green revolution, malnutrition, resource degradation, regional disparities, unemployment and under employment of youths, vast grey area and the urgency for technological empowerment of rural populace etc.

Improved agricultural technologies, even though sound with technical standards , are of limited value if they can’t be adopted due to their unsuitability under particular agro-climate and socio-economic situations. It is estimated that the actual acceptance of recommended agricultural technologies is below 30 per cent in India. Transfer of technology through KVK is suitable answer to achieve the objectives by providing scientific and skill oriented knowledge in agriculture and allied fields

Raebareli district is one of the 74 districts of Uttar Pradesh , that falls in Lucknow division. Southern boundary of the district is naturally demarcated by river Ganga while, Sai river bisects this district in two halves. Administratively the district is divided into 7 sub-division namely Sadar, Unchahar, Dalmau,Tiloi, Maharajganj, Lalganj and Salon and 21 Development Blocks viz Rahi, Harchandpur ,Sataon, Amawan, Maharajganj, Bachharawan, Shivgarh, Dalmau, Jagatpur, Unchahar, Lalganj, Khiron, Tiloi, Salon, Deen shah gaura, Rohania, Singhpur, Bahadurpur, Deeh, Chhatoh and Saraini. There are1776 villages in the district. The geographical area of Raebareli district is 4.56 lac ha with a population of 2872204 (2001 census). As per live-stock census 1997, the cattle, buffalo, sheep, goat and pig population is 700775, 326366,74194,254175 and 184201, respectively . The cross-bred cattle, sheep and pigs constitute 3.27, 4.19 and 21.11 percent of total animal population, respectively. Though, the district has vast population of cattle, but the productivity in terms of milk is quite low. The net cultivated area of the district is 2.92 lac ha out of which 1.68 lac ha is irrigated. Waste lands occupy 12.57% of the total geographical area of the district. The cropping intensity is 151.6% and fertilizer consumption is 110.10 kg. per hectare(2001-02). Paddy, sorghum, urd, pigeon pea, ground nut and sesamum in Kharif and wheat, gram, toria and mustard in Rabi are the major crops. Sunflower, urd and moong are grown in Zaid on limited scale.There are vast potentialities of exploiting the resource base of district Raebareli.

In the broad spectrum of development for rural sector, the Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Dariyapur, Raebareli, from its very inception in 1984, is performing a considerable and commendable job of rural development in district Raebareli through its multifarious activities like Training, Demonstration, On Farm Testing as well as Farm advisory services. Humble contribution is being made in a number of areas like organic farming /sustainable crop production, seed production, flower cultivation, spices cultivation, vegetable cultivation, fruit production, mushroom cultivation, kitchen gardening, etc. It has established good collaboration with line departments of the district viz. U.P. Bhumi Sudhar Nigam Limited(UPLDC),District Rural Development Authority (DRDA),State Department of agriculture etc.

Details of District

Major farming systems/enterprises (based on the analysis made by the KVK)

S.N. Farming system/enterprise
1 Major part of Raebareli soils is sodic and in these soils crop cultivation without any modification, becomes very difficult. Under these conditions rice-wheat cropping system immerged as predominant one. Rice is the most important crop of the district followed by moong and urd that are grown during Kharif season. Dhaincha is a major green manuring crop. During winter wheat with its salt tolerant varieties is the most important Rabi crop. Other important crops of Rabi season are Bengal gram, pea, mustard etc. During Zaid fields usually remain vacant due to unavailability of irrigation water.
2 Geographical, climatic and edaphic characteristics of the district determine the type of the farming system to be followed. The district comprises a flat gently undulating tract and is characterised by six physiographic tracts namely Ganga khadars, Ganga Recent Alluviams, Ganga flats, Sai uplands Sai low lands and Sai flats. These physiographic divisions have contributed to the development of six specific soils association in the district. Climate is semi arid and is characterized by average rainfall of 923 m.m with mean maximum and minimum temperature of 44.2 0C and 2.30C, respectively. Loamy sand, sandy loam, clay loam and silt loam soils are found in the district. Loamy sand and sandy loam soils are generally light shallow, low water retentive and deficient in nutrients where as silt loam and clay loam soils are deep, highly water retentive and medium to highly productive. There are four major farming systems in the district based on nature of soil and degree of assured irrigation. (a) Pure cropping (b) Mixed farming (iii) Agri-horti and (iv) Agri-Silvi. The major crops of this district are paddy, wheat, sorghum, pigeon pea, gram, pea and mustard.

Description of Agro-climatic Zone & major agro ecological situations (based on soil and topography)

S.N. Agro Ecological Situation Characteristics
1 AES-I Light brown sandy loam to sandy, generally structure less, poor in water holding capacity and organic matter, moderately alkaline, restricted drainage, surface soils poor in lime content but the middle layer is calcareous, medium in soluble salts. Carbonates & sulphates practically absent.
2 AES-II Light gray brown at surface to pale brown at lower depth , poor to average water holding capacity neutral in reaction and poor in organic matter. Generally non calcareous with fair drainage, medium in soluble salt contents with predominance of bicarbonates and chlorides.
3 AES-III Light gray to light brownish gray, sandy loam, average water holding capacity, neutral in reaction, slightly calcareous, low in organic matter content , impeded drainage and prone to salinity in the water logged areas, average in soluble salts but injurious carbonates are absent.
4 AES-IV Brown at surface and lighter brown, sandy loam, average water holding capacity, neutral non-calcareous, fair drainage, low in soluble salts mainly comprising of bicarbonates and chlorides of sodium.
5 AES-V The colour varies from gray to grayish brown at the surface to slightly light at lower depths. Light texture at surface but becoming heavier below, average water holding capacity, neutral in reaction but lower layers moderately calcareous. High soluble salts that increase with depth.
6 AES-VI Surface soil gray in colour which darkens below, becoming gray again in the third horizon . Texture is clay loam at surface and heavier below, average water holding capacity, neutral in reaction and medium water soluble salts comprising mainly bicarbonates and chlorides of sodium.

Soil Types

S.N. Soil Type Characteristics Area (ha)
1 Ganga Khadar Light brown sandy loam to sandy, generally structure less, poor in water holding capacity and organic matter, moderately alkaline, restricted drainage, surface soils poor in lime content but the middle layer is calcareous, medium in soluble salts. Carbonates & sulphates practically absent. 14935
2 Ganga Recent Alluvium Light gray brown at surface to pale brown at lower depth, poor to average water holding capacity neutral in reaction and poor in organic matter. Generally non calcareous with fair drainage, medium in soluble salt contents with predominance of bicarbonates and chlorides. 14548
3 Ganga Flat Light gray to light brownish gray, sandy loam, average water holding capacity, neutral in reaction, slightly calcareous, low in organic matter content, impeded drainage and prone to salinity in the water logged areas, average in soluble salts but injurious carbonates are absent. 108593
4 Sai Upland Brown at surface and lighter brown, sandy loam, average water holding capacity, neutral non-calcareous, fair drainage, low in soluble salts mainly comprising of bicarbonates and chlorides of sodium. 5986
5 Sai Low Land The colour varies from gray to grayish brown at the surface to slightly light at lower depths. Light texture at surface but becoming heavier below, average water holding capacity, neutral in reaction but lower layers moderately calcareous. High soluble salts that increase with depth. 126597
6 Sai Flat Surface soil gray in colour which darkens below, becoming gray again in the third horizon. Texture is clay loam at surface and heavier below, average water holding capacity, neutral in reaction and medium water soluble salts comprising mainly bicarbonates and chlorides of sodium. 193175

Area, Production and Productivity of major crops cultivated in the district

S.N. Crop Area (ha) Production (Qtl) Productivity (Qtl /ha)
A Field Crops Including Oil Seeds And Pulses
1 Wheat 183484 39447500 21.70
2 Rice 136362 27970901 20.41
3 Gram 6684 695910 10.39
4 Pea 4041 365720 9.15
5 Arhar 10320 1084801 10.40
6 Lentil 302 23110 7.61
7 Urd 19674 739110 4.71
8 Moong 1291 38000 4.51
9 Mustard 10146 928600 9.14
10 Til 1910 31100 1.62
11 Ground nut 2281 182000 8.01
12 Potato 5073 12264800 241.51

Production and productivity of livestock, Poultry, Fisheries etc. in the district

Category Population Production Productivity
Cattle
Crossbred 21675 - -
Indigenous 512230 - -
Buffalo 329149 - -
Sheep
Crossbred 728 - -
Indigenous 35652 - -
Goats 295625 - -
Pigs 128016 - -
Crossbred 12543 - -
Indigenous 114520 - -
Poultry
Ducks 5485 - -
Turkey and others 6102 - -
Category Area (ha) Production(qt.) Productivity (Q/ha)
Fish 243.00 5960.00 24.70

Priority Thrust Area

S.No. Thrust Area
CROP PRODUCTION
1 Popularization of hybrid rice cultivation and scented rice including local scented varieties line sowing/transplanting of rice and other crops needs emphasis
2 Popularization of Vermicompost, Nadep compost to nourish the soil and as part of Integrated plant nutrient management
3 Seed production of wheat, rice, ground nut, pigeon pea, sesamum etc.
4 Popularization of wheat sowing with Zeor-till seed cum ferti drill.
HORTICULTURE
1 Hybrid vegetable and spices (chilli) cultivation.
2 Establishment of Aonla and Ber orchards in sodic lands, inter-cropping of turmeric as well as ginger in established mango or other orchards.
3 Popularization of commercial cultivation of flowers viz rose, gladiolus, marigold etc.
4 Medicinal and aeromatic plants cultivation.
5 Popularization of bio-diesel plant (Jatropha) cultivation.
6 Protected nursery raising technique through low-tunnel poly house.
LIVE STOCK
1 Introduction of cross breed cattle.
2 Popularization of Barbari breed of goat for resource poor families.
3 Knowledge of diseases of animals is essential to the farmers.
HOME SCIENCE
1 Knowledge of safe grain storage to be imparted to the rural women.
2 Child care and nutrition need emphasis .
3 Kitchen gardening knowledge to be imparted to women.
4 Vegetable and fruits preservation techniques need to be taught.
5 Cutting and tailoring are having vast potentialities for rural women .
PLANT PROTECTION
1 IPM in rice and wheat utilizing bio-agents like Trichoderma, B.T., NPV, Trichocard etc.
2 IPM of Heliothis in gram, arhar and tomato.
3 Yellow vein mosaic management is most important in Urd and Moong.
4 Biopesticidal management of plant pests in vegetables and fruits.
AGRICULTURE EXTENSION
1 Formation of self-help groups (SHGs) of farmers and farm women.
2 Motivation to the farmers for participation in farm science club.
SOIL SCIENCE
1 Imblance use of fertilizers and its placement.
2 No use of optimum dose of phosphorus and potash fertilizer.
3 Soils are deficient in organic matter, nitrogen, zinc and sulpher.
4 No use of micro-nutrient.
5 No use of supher in oilseed crop and pulses.
6 Increase usar productivity.